blogger delicious digg diigo facebook googleplus linkedin netlog reddit twitter
Skip Navigation LinksJRI > Archive > January-March 2003, Volume 4, Issue 1 > Cognitive biases in infertility

Volume 4, Issue 1, Number 13 / January-March
(pages 55-69)

Cognitive biases in infertility

 Corresponding Author
Counseling Services, juvenile and social researches Institute, Astan-e Ghods-e Razavi, Mashad, Iran

1- Reproductive Biotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
2- Psychology Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

Related Articles
in Google Scholar in PubMed


Other Format
pdfPDF Full Text (En) pdfPDF Full Text (Fa) pdfePUB Full Text (En) pdfPDF Abstract (En) pdfPDF Abstract (Fa) pdf BibTeX pdfRefMan pdfEndNote xmlPMC XML online readerPMC Reader


Problems in cognitive processes were reported in infertile persons. The present study has focused on biases as a type of cognitive vulnerability in these persons. The aim was at first, to determine whether there are memory, attention and problem-solving baises in these persons., and then which type of processing there are involved? One hundred ten subjects participated in the study including 55 infertile (30 females and 25 males), and 55 fertile (30 females and 25 males). In memory, subjects were asked to listen to a list of words including 12 infertility related words, 12 neutral words and 12 animal names. They were given free recall test to remember as many word as possible and then they were asked to recognize target words among 36 distractor words. In attention, the subjects were required to name the color of 34 words (17 infertility related and 17 neutral) as fast as possible. The subject’s reaction time was recorded by computer. In problem solving, the subjects were required to complete 10 words (5 infertility related and 5 neutral) which were fragmented by some letters. Repeated messure analysis variance was used, in memory, the design was 2 groups (fertile, infertile)×2 sex (male, female)×3 type of word (infertility related, neutral and animal name) and in attention the design was 2 group (fertile and infertile) ×2 sex (male, female) ×2 type of word (infertility related and neutral), in problem solving independent T test was used for comparison between fertile and infertile women. The results of memory tests showed that infertile women as compared to fertile men recalled and recognized more infertility related words than other type of words. In attention test, there was no significant difference in reaction time between infertile and fertile groups in infertility related words and neutral words. In problem solving test in neutral words, infertile women as compared with fertile men, completed fewer words significantly, but in infertility related words there was no significant difference between them. Since, memory and problem solving the processes are deep and strategic and in attention are automatic, the results of memory and problem solving, showed that infertile women process the infertility related stimulus in controlled, strategic, and deep manner, and on the basis of attention results, they do not show the automatic and uncontrolled processing. Thus in treatment of psychological consequence of infertility, cognitive methods are the best method, because they focus directly on conscious thought.

Keywords: Infertility, Memory bias, Attention bias, Problem solving

To cite this article:

  1. محمدي محمدرضا، خلج‌آبادي فراهاني فريده. مشكلات عاطفي و رواني ناشي از نازايي و راهكار مقابله با آن. فصلنامه پزشكي باروري و ناباروري، سال دوم، شماره هشتم، پاييز 80، صفحه 39-22.
  2. Nasseri M. Psychological and social aspect of infertility and infertility treatment: the Persian experience.the thesis submitted to Middlesex University in partial fulfilment of the requairment for the degree of doctor in philosophy. 2000.
  3. مظاهري محمدعلي، قشنگ نيره، پاتو مژگان، فقيه ايماني زهره. بررسي شيوه‌هاي حل مسأله و سازگاري زناشويي در زوج‌هاي نابارور. فصلنامة پزشكي باروري و ناباروري سال دوم، شمارة هشتم، پاييز 80, صفحه 32-22.
  4. فراهاني محمدنقي. جنبه‎هاي روان‎شناختي مقابله و سازگاري با ناباروري و نقش روان‎شناس. فصلنامة پزشكي باروري و ناباروري، سال دوم، شمارة هشتم، پاييز 80, صفحه 59-52.
  5. خرازي كمال. راهنماي روان‌شناسي شناختي و علم شناخت. نشر ني.
  6. Mathews A. Biases in Processing Emotional Information. The psychologist; Bull Br psychol society.PP493-499.
  7. Power H., Dalglish. Cognition and Emotion. East sussex: psychology press, UK. 1997;PP289.
  8. Ellis H.C., Hunt R.R. Fundamentals of Human Memory and Cognition. 4th Edition, W.M.C. Brown publishers, Dubuque, Iowa. 1989.
  9. Janssen E. Everaerd W. Spiering, Mark; Janssen J. Automatic processes and the appraisal of sexual stimuli: Toward an information processing model of sexual arousal. J Sex Res. 2000;37.
  10. آيزنك مايكل. فرهنگ توصيفي روانشناسي شناختي. ترجمة علينقي خرازي, 1379، نشر ني، صفحه 226.
  11. Baddeley A. Human Memory; theory and practice. Revised Edition, psychology press. 1997.
  12. حميدپور حسن. مقايسة كارآمدي روش شناخت‌درماني بك با روش شناخت درماني تيزدل در درمان افسرده خويي. پايان‌نامة كارشناسي ارشد، دانشگاه فردوسي، 1381.
  13. Waller G., Meyer C., Vartouhi O. Psychometric Properties of the Long and Short Versions of the Young Schema Questionnair: Corbelifs Among Bulimic and Comparison Women. J Cogn Therapy Res.2001;25(2):PP137-147.
  14. Israeli A., Lea and Stewart Sh.H. Memory bias for forbidden food cuse in restrained eaters. J Cogn Therap Res. 2001;25(1):PP37- 47.
  15. Buckley T.C. Blanchard E.B. Hickling E.J. Automatic and Strategic processiong of threat stimuli: A comparison between PTSD, Panic disorder, and Nonanexiety control. J Cogn Ther Res. 2002;26(1)PP97-115.
  16. Hopko D.R., McNeil D.W. The emotional Stroop Paradigm. Performance as function of stimulus properties and self-reported mathematics anxiety. Cogn Ther & Res. 2002; 26(2):157-166.
  17. Constantine R., McNally R.J., Horing Ch. Snake fear and the pictorial emotional stroop paradigm. Cogn Ther & Res. 2001; 25(6):757-764.
  18. Eysenck M.W., Mogg K. Clinical anxiety Trait anxiety and Memory bias. Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Research and theory christienson, S.A. (eds) LEA: New Jersy. 1993;PP439.
  19. Ott R. Spielberg R., Scholz D.B. Somatoform Disorder and Implicit Memory Bias. German J Psychiatry. 2000.
  20. Andersson G. Eriksson J. Lundh L.G.L.L. Tinnitus and cognitive interference: a stroop paradigm study. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2000; 43(5):1168-1173.
  21. Brailey K., Vasterling J.J., Franks J.J. Memory of psychodiagnostic information: Biases and effects of expertise. Am J Psychol.2001; 114 (1):PP55-92.
  22. Waters A.J., Saul Sh. Minimally deprived smokers show an attentional bias to smoking cues. 2000.
  23. Townshend J.M., Duka T. Attentional bias associated with alcohol cuse: Difference between heavy and occasional social drinkers. Springer university of Sussex, UK. 2001.
  24. كرمي نوري رضا، آخوندي محمدمهدي، بهجتي اردكاني زهره. مطالعه و بررسي جنبه‌هاي رواني ـ اجتماعي ناباروري از ديدگاه پزشكان ايراني، فصلنامة پزشكي باروري و ناباروري، سال دوم، شمارة هفتم، تابستان 80، صفحه 26-13.
  25. Mc Nally R.J., Otto M.W., Horing Ch.D., Deckersbach T. Cognitive Bias in Panic Disorder: A Process Dissociation Approach to Automaticity. J Cog Therapy Res. 2001; 25 (3): PP335-437.
  26. Taghavi M. Biases in visual attention in children and adolescents with clinical anxiety andmixed anxiety-depression. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1999.
  27. سولسو رابرت ال. روانشناسي شناختي، ترجمة فرهاد ماهر، انتشارات رشد، 1381
  28. رزاقي رضا. بررسي اثر كنترل بر فرآيند ايمن‌سازي درماندگي آموخته‌شده. پايان‌نامه كارشناسي ارشد، دانشگاه تربيت معلم تهران، 1379
  29. Szabo M. Overview of the DASS and its uses. university of new souht wales, Australia. 2002.
  30. صاحبي علي. هنجاريابي آزمون DASS در مشهد، دانشگاه فردوسي مشهد، 1381. 31-ايزدي خواه زهرا. بررسي سوگيري حافظة آشكار در خصيصة اضطراب و اختلال وسواسي ـ اجباري. پايان‌نامه كارشناسي ارشد، دانشگاه علوم بهزيستي و توان‌بخشي، 1379.
  31. ايزدي خواه زهرا. سوگيري حافظة آشكار در خصيصة اضطراب و اختلال وسواسي ـ اجباري. پايان‌نامه كارشناسي ارشد، دانشگاه علوم بهزيستي و توانبخشي، 1379.
  32. كرمي نوري رضا. ناباروري و جنبه‌هاي رواني ـ اجتماعي. فصلنامة باروري و ناباروري، بهار 79, صفحه 69-58.
  33. Wani R.J. Counseling the infertil Couple. Orig J Res Art. 1996.
  34. Cheng S.K. Life Stress, Prpblem Solving, Perfectionism, and Depressive Symptoms in Chinese. Cogn Ther & Res. 2001; 25(3):303-310.

Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and copyrighted by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2016 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.