ARI 
 JRI 
 ISERB 
blogger delicious digg diigo facebook googleplus linkedin netlog reddit twitter
Skip Navigation LinksJRI > Archive > January-March 2004, Volume 5, Issue 1 > "Unwanted" pregnancies and its determinants in Iran



Volume 5, Issue 1, Number 17 / January-March
(pages 62-76)


"Unwanted" pregnancies and its determinants in Iran




 Corresponding Author
Department of Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

Population Data Unit., Department of Family Health and Population, Ministry of Helath, Tehran, Iran

Population Data Unit., Department of Family Health and Population, Ministry of Helath, Tehran, Iran


Related Articles
in Google Scholar in PubMed

 

Other Format
pdfPDF Full Text (En) pdfPDF Full Text (Fa) pdfePUB Full Text (En) pdfPDF Abstract (En) pdfPDF Abstract (Fa) pdf BibTeX pdfRefMan pdfEndNote xmlPMC XML online readerPMC Reader

 


Abstract
Introduction: Despite the success of family planning programs in Iran during the recent years, surveys indicate that a significant proportion of pregnancies are unwanted. The objective of the present study was to examine the rate of unwanted pregnancies in Iran and to analyze the effect of relevant socio-economic and demographic variables on unwanted pregnancies. Materials and Methods: The data and informations for this study were obtained from the “Iran Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS)” undertaken by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2000. The study was performed on 5420 married pregnant woman. Results: Results showed that around 35 percent of pregnancies were unintended, of which 19 percent were mistimed and 16 percent were unwanted. There was a meaningful relation between unintended pregnancy rate and pregnancy turn. Besides, around 42 percent of women who experienced unintended pregnancy were using a contraceptive method. Traditional methods and pills were the most prevalent methods used prior to unintended pregnancies in rural and urban areas respectively. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study we suggest that the improvement of quality of family planning services is likely to decrease the level of unintended pregnancies in the future. The programs should target the couples who rely on traditional methods and pill in urban and rural areas respectively.

Keywords: Unwanted pregnancy, Mistimed pregnancy, Unintended pregnancy, Family planning


To cite this article:


References
  1. Rashad H. Demographic transition in Arab countries: A new perspective. Popul Res.2000; 17:81-101.
  2. Bulatao R.A. Introduction Rodolfo A. Caslerline B., casterline C. (Editors). Global Fertility Transition. Popul Develop Rev.2001; 27;(s):1-16.
  3. Casterline J. The pace of fertility transition: National patterns in the second half of the twentieth century. Rodolfo A., Casterline B., Casterline C (editore) Global Fertility Transition. Popul Devel Rev.2001;27:17-52.
  4. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,2000, Below Replacement Fertility, New York.
  5. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Completing Fertility Transition. New York.2002.
  6. United Nations, Population Division. The fertility decline in developing ountries Completing the Fertility Transition. New York. 2002;3-32/45-71.
  7. Bongaarts J. Trends in unwanted childbearing in the developing world. Stud Fam Plan.1997;28 (4):267-277.
  8. Bongaarts J. Populaiton policy options in the developing world. Science.1994;263(5):771-776.
  9. Okonofua F.E., Odimegwu C., Ajabor H., Daru P.H., Johnson A. Assessing the prevalence and determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Nigeria. Stud Fam Plann. 1999;30(1):67-77.
  10. Nock S. L. Abortion, Adoption, and Marriage: Alternative resolutions of an unwanted pregnancy (in exchange on the treatment of adoption and abortion in Textbooks). Fam Relations. 1994; 43 (3):277-279.
  11. ملك‌افضلي، ‌ح. برآورد سقط جنين‌هاي ناشي از حاملگي‌هاي ناخواسته درايران. بهداشت خانواده، 1375،شماره 2، صفحات:7-2.
  12. Lloyd C. B. Montgomery M. R., The consequences of unintended fertility for investments in children: Conceptual and methodo-logical issues.1996;Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 89. New York: Population Council.
  13. بحراني،‌ م. بررسي ميزان‌هاي باروري ناخواسته و وابسته‌هاي آن در شهر شيراز. فصلنامه جمعيت، 1377، شماره 25-26 و صفحات 70-59.
  14. Mensch B., Arends-Kuenning M., Jain A., Garate M. Avoiding unintended pregnancy in Peru: does the quality of family planning services matter?. Int Fam Plan Persp.1997;23(1):21-27.
  15. Okonofua F., Odimegwu C., Ajabor H., Daru P. Johnson A Assessing the prevalence and determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in Nigeria. Stud Fam Plan.1999;30(1) :67-77.
  16. Mirzaie M. Swings in fertility limitations in Iran. Working Paper in Demography, No. 72, Canberra: Australian National University.1998.
  17. Aghajanian A., Mehryar A., Fertility transi-tion in the Islamic Republic of Iran:1976-1996. Asia Pac Popul J.1999;14(1):21-42.
  18. Mehryar A., et al. Iranian miracle: How to raise contraceptive prevalence rate to above 70% and cut TFR by two-thirds in less than a decade? Paper presented at the 24th IUSSP conference, 2001;18-24 August, Salvador, Brazil.
  19. عباسي شوازي، محمد جلال، همگرائي رفتارهاي باروري در ايران: ميزان، روند و الگوي سني باروري در استان‌هاي کشور طي سال‌هاي 1351 و 1375. نامه علوم اجتماعي 1381، شماره 18: صفحات 231-201.
  20. عباسي شوازي، محمد جلال، ارزيابي نتايج فرزندان خود در برآورد باروري با استفاده از داده‌هاي سرشماري، نامه علوم اجتماعي 1379،شماره16: صفحات 135-105.
  21. Abbasi-Shavazi M.J. Effects of marital fertility and nuptiality on fertility transition in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Working Papers in Demography, No. 84, Canberra: Australian National University,2000b.
  22. Abbasi-Shavazi M.J., Attainment of below-replacement fertility in Iran: Fertility levels and trends during 1972-2000, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of the Population Association of Pakistan on Population and Sustainable Develop-ment in Pakistan, Lahore, 19-21 December 2002; pp:307-317.
  23. Abbasi-Shavazi M.J. Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, Paper presented at the Expert Group Meeting on Completing Fertility Transition, New York, 11-16 March.2002,pp. 425-439.
  24. Abbasi-Shavazi M.J., Mehryar A., Jones, G., McDonald P. Revolution, war and modernization: population policy and fertility change in Iran. J Popul Res.2002;19(1):25-46.
  25. حقجو، ن. و ييلاق بيگي، م. بررسي حاملگي‌هاي ناخواسته بين زنان روستائي در رشت. بهداشت خانواده و 1375، شماره 4 و صفحات 43-36.
  26. كمال، س. بررسي شيوع حاملگي‌هاي ناخواسته در سمنان، بهداشت خانواده. 1376، شماره 7، صفحات11-3.
  27. پورزكريا،‌ م. علل باروري ناخواسته زنان 49-15 ساله همسردار در جنوب تهران (مطالعه تطبيقي درمنطقه فرمانفرمايان و دولتخوان). پايان‌نامه كارشناسي ارشد جمعيت‌شناسي، دانشكده‌علوم اجتماعي، دانشگاه تهران، 1381.
  28. Paydarfar A. Malekafzali H. Sociodemogra-phic attributes of Iranian wives who reported unwanted pregnancies, Paper presented at the Research Committee on Sociology of Population in the World Congress of Sociology, July 26-August 1, Montreal, Canada, 1998.
  29. Jain A. Should eliminating unmet need for contraception continue to be a program priority?. Int Fam Plan Perspec.1999;25(S):39-49.
  30. Santelli J., et al. The Measurement and meaning of unintended pregnancy. Perspec Sex Reprod Health.2003;35(2):pp.94-101.
  31. Pulley L., Klerman L., Tang H., Baker B. A. The extent of pregnancy mistiming and its association with maternal characteristics and behaviors and pregnancy outcomes. Perspec Sex Reprod Health.2002;34(4):pp.206-211.
  32. Lucas D., Meyer P. The background to fertility. In Beginning Population Studies. Lucas. D. Meyer P (Editors). National Centre for Development Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra:1994;56-68.
  33. دزفولي منش، م.، رضائي، م. بررسي شيوع و تعيين كننده‌هاي حاملگي ناخواسته در استفاده از وسائل تنظيم خانواده. بهداشت خانواده، 1377، شماره 12، صفحات24-12
  34. Brown B. Many women at high risk of unintended pregnancy are unaware of emergency contraception or how to use it. Fam Plan Perspec.2001;33(1):42-43.
  35. Abbasi-Shavazi, M.J. et al. Unintended Pregnancies in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Levels and Correlates, Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 2004:19(1),pp.27-38.
  36. Weinberger M. B. The relationship between women's education and fertility:selected findings from the World Fertility Surveys.Int Fam Plan Perspec.1987;13(2):35-46.
  37. Montgomery M. R., Lloyd C. B., Excess Fertility, Unintended Births and Children's Schooling. Policy Research Division Working Paper No. 100. New York: Population Council, 1997.



Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and copyrighted by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2016 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.