blogger delicious digg diigo facebook googleplus linkedin netlog reddit twitter
Skip Navigation LinksJRI > Archive > July-September 2008, Volume 9, Issue 2 > Surrogacy: Medicalization of Motherhood



Volume 9, Issue 2, Number 35 / July-September
(pages 144-164)


Surrogacy: Medicalization of Motherhood




 Corresponding Author
Department of Demography, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran


Related Articles
in Google Scholar in PubMed

 

Other Format
pdfPDF Full Text (En) pdfPDF Full Text (Fa) pdfePUB Full Text (En) pdfPDF Abstract (En) pdfPDF Abstract (Fa) pdf BibTeX pdfRefMan pdfEndNote xmlPMC XML online readerPMC Reader

 


Abstract
Introduction: Surrogacy is one of the important new reproductive technosciences that contributes to medicalization of motherhood, providing an alternative method to natural fertility as well as a resolution to infertility. According to sociologists, medicalization is a multidimensional process by which natural and non-medical problems or conditions become defined, treated and managed as medical problems, using specialized vocabulary, professional approaches, particular instru-ments and interventions techniques. Reviewing socially constructed nature of surrogacy and its various social aspects and implications, this article shows how surrogacy serves to turn mother-hood, a natural and vital experience in women’s life, to the growing process of medicalization. Materials & Methods: This paper seeks to provide a sociological analysis of the constructionist nature and implications of surrogacy by reviewing the body of knowledge and literature developed in sociology. Drawing on the notion of medicalization , the paper is to show how surrogacy has contributed and continues to contribute to the medicalization of motherhood. Results: Sociological analyses show that the alternative methods to natural fertility or new paths to cure infertility including surrogacy are socially constructed and have numerous and far-reach-ing sociological aspects and implications. The novel technosciences like surrogacy play a central role in dealing with, redefinition and accordingly construction of human problems and experience-es. Surrogacy, inter alia, introduces the new form of medicalization of motherhood by blurring the distinction between what is natural and what is made by mankind on the subject of motherhood. Conclusion: Like most of new medical and reproductive technosciences, surrogacy provides a new configuration of women’s lives and motherhood in particular that can be primarily characterized by medicalization or transformation of motherhood into jurisdiction of medicine.

Keywords: Medicalization, Surrogacy, Motherhood, Social Constructionism, Claim-making, Reproduction, Infertility, Technoscience


To cite this article:



Figures, Charts, Tables

References
  1. Clarke AE. Controversy and the development of repro-ductive sciences. Soc Probl. 1990;37(1)pp:18-37.
  2. Elston MA. Introduction: The Sociology of Medical Science and Technology, In: The Sociology of Medical Science and Technology. Elston MA. (Editor.), Pub-lished by Blackwell Publisher, Oxford. 1997;p:1-27.
  3. Brown N, Webster A. New Medical Technologies and Society. Published by Polity Press, Cambridge. 2004.
  4. Lock M, Young A, Camborsio A. (Editors.) Living and working with new medical technologies. Published by Cambridge University Press. Cambridge. 2000.
  5. Helen I. Health in Prospect: High-tech medicine, life enhancement and the economy of hope. Sci Stud 2004; 17(1):3-19.
  6. Stock G. Redesigning humans: Our inevitable genetic future. Published by houghton Mifflin Company, Bos-ton. 2002.
  7. Fukuyama F. Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the biotechnology revolution. Published by Profile Books, London. 2002.
  8. Habermas J. The Future of human nature. Published by Polity Press, Cambridge. 2003.
  9. Kerr A. Genetics and Society: A Sociology of disease. Published by Routledge, London & New York. 2004.
  10. Berger P, Luckmann T. The Social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Penguin Books. 1976.
  11. قاضي طباطبائي محمود، ودادهير ابوعلي، محسني تبريزي عليرضا. پزشكي شدن به مثابه بازي: تحليلي بر برساخت اجتماعي مسائل انساني. پژوهشنامه علوم انساني، ويژه¬نامه علوم اجتماعي. شماره 53، بهار 1386، صفحات: 324-289.
  12. Becker, HS. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: MacMillan. 1963.
  13. Blumer H. Social Problems as Collective Behaviours. Soc Probl. 1971;18:298-306.
  14. Yoshihama M. The definitional Process of domestic violence in Japan. Violence against Women. 2002;8(3/ March):339-366.
  15. Mcright, MA, Riley DE. Challenging global warming as a social problem: An analysis of the conservative movement's Counter-Claims. Soc Probl. 2000;47(4): 499-522.
  16. Spector M, Kitsuse J. Constructing social problems.
  17. Schneider JW. Social problems theory: the construc-tionist view. Annu Rev Sociol. 1985;11:209-29.
  18. Loseke DR. Thinking about social problems: An introduction to social constructionist perspectives. Published by Aldine de Gruyter, New York. 2003.
  19. Best J. Constructionism in context. In: Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems. Best J (Editor). Published by Aldine De Gruyter, New York. 1995;p:337-354.
  20. Best J (Editor). How Claims Spread: Cross-National Diffusion of Social Problems. Published by Aldine De Gruyter, New York. 2001.
  21. Best J. Theoretical issues in the study of social prob-lems and deviance. In: Handbook of Social Problems: A Comparative International Perspective. Ritzer G (Editor). Published by Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks, CA. 2004;p:14-29.
  22. Best J. Social Problems. Published by W. W. Norton, New Jerssy. 2008.
  23. قاضي¬طباطبايي محمود، پاولاك دروتي، ودادهير ابوعلي. برساخت يك مسأله اجتماعي‌ـ ‌جمعيتي: درآمدي بر جمعيت¬شناسي اجتماعي‌ـ‌اقتصادي اچ¬آي¬وي-¬ايدز در ايران. نامه انجمن جمعيت¬شناسي ايران. سال اول. 1385. شماره 2، صفحات 170-136.
  24. Furedi F. The end of professional dominance. Society. 2006;43(6):14.
  25. Conrad P. Medicalization and social control. Ann Rev Sociol. 1992;18:209-32.
  26. Conrad P. Medicalization and social control. Ann Rev Sociol. 1992;18:215.
  27. Freidson E. Profession of Medicine. Published by The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1970;p:251.
  28. Ballard K, Elston MA. Medicalisation: A Multi-dimensional Concept. Social Theory & Health. 2005; 3:228-241.
  29. Conrad P. The Shifting engines of medicalization. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46:3-14.
  30. Conrad P. The Medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders. Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 2007.
  31. Conrad P. Medicalization and social control. Ann Rev Sociol. 1992;18:211.
  32. Conrad P, Schneider J. Deviance and medicalization: From Badness to Sickness. Published by Temple University Press, Philadelphia. 1992 [1980].
  33. Conrad P. The Shifting engines of medicalization. J Health Soc Behav. 2005;46:3.
  34. Conrad P. The discovery of hyperkinesis: Notes on the medicalization of deviant behavior. Soc Probl. 1975;23:12-21.
  35. Bond J. The medicalization of dementia. J Aging Stud. 1992;6(4):397-403.
  36. Palley ML. Medicalization versus demedicalization of
  37. Crawford R. Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life. Int J Health Serv.1980;10:365-88.
  38. Waitzkin H. Micropolitics of medicine: Theoretical issues. Medical anthropology quarterly. 1986;17(5):p. 134.
  39. Conrad P, Schneider J. Looking at levels of medicali-zation: A comment of Strong’s critique of the thesis of medical imperialism. Soc Sci Med. 1980; 14A:75-79.
  40. Watts G. Looking to the future, in the Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine, Porter R. (Editor.). Published by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 1996;pp:342-373.
  41. Heitman E. Social and ethical aspects of in Vitro Fertilization. In: The Sociology of Health and Illness Reader, Nettleton S, Gustafson U (Editors). Publish-ed by Polity Press, Cambridge. 2002;p:57-64.
  42. Cockerham WC. Health as a social problem. In: Handbook of Social Problems: A Comprehensive Inter-national Perspective, Ritzer, G. (Editor.) Published by Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA. 2004;p:271-315.
  43. Illieh I. Medical nemesis: The expropriation of health. Published by Pantheon, New York. 1975.
  44. Ragone H, Willis SK. Reproduction and Assisted Reproductive Technologies. In: The Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine. Albrecht GL, Fitzpatrick R, Scrimshaw SC (Editors). Published by Sage Publications, London. 2000;p:308-22.
  45. King CR. The ideological and technological shaping of motherhood. Women and Health. 1992;19:1-12.
  46. Lee E. Abortion, Motherhood, and Mental Health: Medicalizing reproduction in the United States and Great Britain. Published by Aldine de Gruyter, New York. 2003.
  47. Davis-Floyd RE, Sargent CF. (Editors.) Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-cultural Perspec-tive. Published by California University Press, Berkley. 1997.
  48. Jordan B. Authoritative Knowledge and its Construc-tion, In: Childbirth and Authoritative Knowledge: Cross-cultural Perspective, Davis-Floyd RE., Sargent CF (Editors). Published by California University Press, Berkley. 1997;pp:55-79.
  49. Riessman CK. Women and medicalization: A New Perspective. Soc Pol. 1983;14/summer: 3-18.
  50. Gabe J, Calnan M. The Limits of Medicine: Women’s Perception of Medical Technology. Soc Sci Med. 1989;28:223-31.



Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and copyrighted by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2016 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.