- Zinat Mortazavi
- - Public Health Department, Faculty of Health, Zahedan Medical Sciences University, Zahedan, Iran
- Mehdi Mohammadi
- - Department of Epidemiology & Statistics , Faculty of Health, Zahedan Medical Sciences University, Zahedan, Iran
Received: 10/1/2003 Accepted: 10/1/2003 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute
Some pregnant women cravings for non-food substances with no nutritional value which is called pica such as dirt, clay, paint chips, chalk, ice, etc. Most frequently, pica occurs in children, persons with mental retardation and women during their pregnancies or while they are breast-feeding. Pica is considered to be a serious eating disorder, sometimes resulting in serious health problems such as lead poisoning, bowel blockage, and iron deficiency anemia. In a cross-sectional survey (with randomized multi stage sampling) the prevalence of pica was studied in 560 pregnant women who referred to health centers in Zahedan. Using a structured questionnaire, over a four-month period information were obtained from all mothers. The prevalence of pica among the subjects was 15.5%, in which 25.3% of them ate dirt, 60.9% ice, and others substances such as chalk, rosary praying clay, freezer frost, tea stuff and other non-food substances. Considering that pica is not limited to any culture, race, sex or socioeconomic background and also can result in dangerous and serious health problems, therefore needs to raise public awareness of the adverse effects of this practice is suggested.
Keywords: Pica, Women, Pregnancy, Prevalence, non-food substabces, Complications, Eating disorder To cite this article:
- كارين هاگدن رابينسون، ترجمة ناهيد خلدي. اصول تغذية رابينسون. چاپ اول، تهران، نشر سالمي سال 1378، صفحه: 201-197.
- فروزاني مينو. تغذيه در دوران بارداري، شيردهي، شيرخواري و کودکي. چاپ سوم، انتشارات چهر1374، صفحات 18،65-64.
- Thomas B. Manual of Dietetic Practice. Blackwell scientific publications,1988.,pp:252.
- Walker A.R.P., Walker B.F., Sookaria F.I., Cannan R.J. Pica. J Roy Soc Health.1997;117 (5):280-84.
- Woywodt A., Kiss A. Perforation of the sigmoid colon due to geophagia. Arch surg. 1999;134:88-89.
- Rose E.A. Pica: common but commonly missed. J Am Board Fam Pract.2000;13: 353-8.
- Cynthia R.E. Eating disorder: Pica. eMed J. 2003;3(1):1-12.
- Smulian J.C., Motiwala S., Sigman R.K. Pica in a rural obstetric population. South Med J.1995;88 (12)1236-40.
- Horner R.D., Lackey C.J., Kolasa L., Warren K. Pica practices of pregnant women. J Am Diet Assoc.1991;91(1):34-8.
- Morales L., Hayes-Bautista D. Pica may be harmful to the fetus and mother. West J Med 2000;173:25.
- Rainville A.J. Pica practices of pregnant women are associated with lower maternal hemoglobin level at delivery. Am J Diet Assoc. 1998;98(3):293-6.
- Geissler P.W., Shulman C.E., Prince R.J., Mutemi W., Mzani C., Friis H., Lowe B. Geophagy, iron status and anaemia among pregnant women on the coast of Kenya. Trans R R Soc Trop Med Hyg.1998;92(5):549-53.
- Edwards C.H., Johnson A.A., Knight E.M., Oyemade U.J., Cole O.J., and et al. Pica in an urban environment. J Nutr. 1994;124(6 suppl): 954S-62S.
- Hamilton S., Rothenberg S.J., Khan F.A., Manalo M., Norris K.C. Neonatal lead poisoning from maternal pica behavior during pregnancy. J Natl Med Assoc.2001;93(9):317-19.
- Sayetta R.B. Pica: an overview. Am Fam Physician.1986;33(5):181-5.
- Melville B., Francis V. Dieting habits and superstition of Jamaican women during pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr.1992;373-4.
- Sule S., Madugu H.N. Pica in pregnant women in Zaria, Nigeria.Niger J Med.2001;10(1):25-7.
- Simpson E., Mull J.D., Longley E., East J. Pica during pregnancy in low-income women born in Mexico. West J Med.2000;173 (1):20-4.
- al-Kanhal M.A., Bani I.A. Food habits during pregnancy among Saudi women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res.1995;65(3):206-10.