Arezo Haghighian Roudsari
- Food industry and Nutrition Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Farideh Tahbaz
- Food industry and Nutrition Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Bahram Arjmandi
- Food industry and Nutrition Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Bagher Larijani Corresponding Author
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Masoud Kimiagar
- Food industry and Nutrition Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received: 1/1/2005 Accepted: 1/1/2005 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: Bone mass loss is one of the most common menopausal symptoms resulting from cessation of estrogen production. Compounds with estrogen- like biological activity similar to “Isoflavones” present in plants especially Soy, may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women as they are similar in structure to estrogens.This study ,therefore, was undertaken to assess the effect of soy protein on bone metabolism biomarkers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Materials and Methods: In this “before and after” clinical trial,on 15 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, between 45 to 64 years of age , the subjects were asked to consume 35 gram/day of Soy protein for 12 weeks.Blood and urine samples, were taken at 0,6 and 12 weeks of the study.Anthropometric measurements and a 2-day dietary recall were done at the baseline of the study, and at the 6 and 12 weeks.The food consumption data were analyzed by “Food Proccessor” software. Repeated measurement analysis was done to determine the changes in biochemical indices, anthropometric and dietary data.P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Comparison of weights, BMIs, physical activity and dietary intake of subjects during the study did not show any significant differences. Soy protein consumption, showed significant reductions in urinary deoxypyridinoline (biochemical marker of bone resorption) and significant increase in serum total alkaline phosphatase ( biochemical marker of bone formation).There were no significant differences in serum osteocalcin, C- telopeptide, insulin- like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and type-I- collagen telopeptide. Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of Soy protein consumption on bone metabolism biomarkers, inclusion of this inexpensive and available food item in postmenopausal women diet, may reduce bone loss and could be recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis.

Keywords: Soy protein, Isoflavones, postmenopausal women, Bone metabolism markers, Osteopenia

To cite this article:


  1. Barrett C.E. Epidemiology and the menopause: A global overview. Int J Fertil.1993;38:6-14.
  2. Arjmandi B.H., Alekel L., Hollis B.W., Amin D. Dietary soybean protein prevents bone loss in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis .J Nut.1996; 126:161-7.
  3. Dempster D.W., Lindsay R.Pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Lancet.1996;341:797-801.
  4. Position statement of the north american meno-pause society. Management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Menopause.2002;9:84-101.
  5. Scharbo D.M. Hormone replacement therapy. Nurse Pract.1996;21:1-13.
  6. Groeneveld F.P., Bareman F.P., Barensen R. Determinants of first prescription of hormone rep-lacement therapy.A follow up study among 1689 women aged 45-60 years. Maturitas.1994;20:81-9.
  7. Lignieres D.B. Hormone replacement therapy :clinical benefits and side-effects.Maturitas.1996; 23(suppl):S31-6.
  8. Johannes C.B., Crawford S.L., Posner J.G., Mckinlay S.M. Longitudinal patterns and correla-tes of hormone replacement therapy use in middle aged women. Am J Epidemiol.1994;140:439-52.
  9. Ross P.D., Norimatsu H., Davis J.W., Yano K., Wasnich R.D. A comparison of hip frcture incide-nce amonge native Japanese,Japanese Americans, and American Caucasians. Am J Epidemiol.1991; 133:801-9.
  10. Adiercreutz H., Mazur W. Phytoestrogens and Western diseases. Ann Med. 1997;29:95-120.
  11. Glazier M.G., Bowman M.A. A review of the evidence for the use of phytoestrogens as a replac-ement for traditional estrogen replacement thera-py. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1161-72.
  12. Love R.R., Barden H.S., Mazess R.B., Epstein S., Chappel R.J. Effects of tamoxifen on lumbar spine bone mineral density in postmenopausal women after 5 years. Arch Intern Med.1994;22: 2585-8.
  13. Messina M.J. Legumes and soybeans: Over-view of their nutritional profiles and health effects Am J Clin Nutr.1999;70(suppl):439s-50s.
  14. Wangen K.E., Duncan A.M., Merz-Demlow B.E. Effects of soy isoflavones on markers of bone turnover in premenopausal and postmeno-pausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2000;85: 3043-48.
  15. Kuiper G.G., Carisson B., Grandien K. Comp-arison of the ligand binding specifity and transc-ript tissue distribution of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocrinology.1997;138:863-70.
  16. Arjmandi B.H., Getlinger M.J., Goyal N.V., Alekel l., Hasler C.M. Role of soy protein with normal or reduced isoflaonecontent in reversing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency in rats. Am J Clin Nutr.1998;68(suppl):1358s-63s.
  17. Arjmandi B.H., Birnbaum R., Goyal N.V., Getlinger M.J. Bone sparing effect of soy protein in ovarian hormone-deficient rats is related to its isoflavone content. Am J Clin Nutr.1998;68 (suppl):1364s-8s.
  18. Register T.C., Jayo M.J., Anthony M.S. Soy phytoestrogens do not prevent bone loss in post-menopausal monkeys. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4362-70.
  19. Clarkson T.B., Anthony M.S., Morgan T.M. Inhibition of postmenopausal atherosclerosis. Pro-gression:a comparison of the effects of conjugated equine estrogens and soy phytoestrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2000; 86:41-47.
  20. Setchell K.D., Brown N.M., Lydeking-Olsen E. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr.2002;132:3577-84.
  21. Arjmandi B., Khalil D.A., Smith B.J. Soy protein has a greater effect on bone in postmeno-pausalwomen not on hormon replacement therapy as evidenced by reducing bone resorption and urinary calcium excretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2003;88:1048-54.
  22. Yamori Y., Moriguchi E.H., Teramoto T., Miura A. Soybean isoflavones reduce postmeno-pausal bone resorbtion in female Japanese immig-rants in Brazil: A ten week study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21:560-63.
  23. Picherit C., Pelissero C.B., Chanteranne B., Lebecque P. Soybean isofavones dose-depend-ently reduce bone turnover but do not reverse established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats. J Nutr.2001;131:723-8.
  24. Uesugi T., Fukui Y., Yamori Y. Beneficial effects of soybean isoflavone supplementation on bone metabolism and serum lipids in postmenopa-usal Japanese women: a four week study .J Am Coll Nutr.2002;21:97-102.
  25. Watts N.B. Clinical utility of biochemical markers of bone remodeling. Clin.Chem.1999;45 (8 Pt 2):1359-68.
  26. Fanti P., Monier-Faugere M.C., Geng Z. The phytoestrogen genistein reduces bone loss in short term ovariectomized rats. Osteoporosis Int.1998; 8:274-81.
  27. Picherit C., Coxam V., Bennetau-Pelissero C., Kati-Coulibaly S. Daidzein is more efficient than genistein in preventing ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. J Nutr.2000;130:1675-81.
  28. Agnusdei D., Crepaldi G., Isaia G. A double blind, placibo controlled trial of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal spinal bone loss. Calcif Tissue Int.1997;61:142-7.
  29. Gennari C., Agnusdei D., Crepaldi G. Effect of ipriflavone-a synthetic derivative of natural isoflavones-on bonemass loss in the early years after menopause. Menopause.1998;5:9-15.
  30. Potter S.M., Baum J.A., Teng H., Stillman R.J. Soy protein and isoflavone:their effects on blood lipids and bone density in postmenopausal women.Am J Clin Nutr.1998;68(suppl 6):1375s-79s.
  31. Alekel D.L., Germain A.S., Peterson C.T., Hanson K.B. Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate attenuates bone loss in the lumbar spine of perimenopusal women. Am J Clin Nutr.2000;72: 844-52.
  32. Barnes S., Phytoestrogens and osteoporosis-What is a safe dose?. Br J Nutr. 2003;39:S101-S108.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.