Hossein Adibi
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Samira Ebrahimof
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Soroush Mortaz Hejri
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Negar Salehomom
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Masoud Arzaghi
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Saeed Hosseini Corresponding Author
- Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received: 1/1/2005 Accepted: 1/1/2005 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major health problem because of the large health care costs asso-ciated with its clinical consequences. It is therefore of great important to identify modifiable risk factors. We investigated associations between fruit and vegetable intake and bone mineral density in rural population surround Tehran. Materials and Methods: The study population was a subgroup of a large study on the prevalence and causes of vitamin D deficiency in rural population surround Tehran.Fruit and vegetable intake of 82 subjects whose bone mineral density (BMD) was measured and had a 24 hour food recall, was assessed.Weight and height was measured by standard methods. BMD was measured by Dual X-Ray (DXL) (Calscan) method at the heels. Results: Osteopenia and osteoporosis rate in women older than 50 were 55.5% and 33.3% and in men 69.2% and 7.7% respectively. The chance of having osteoporosis in women was 4.33 of men (RR= 4.33). Fruit intake was not correlated with BMD. Vegetable intake was positively associated with BMD just in women. According to interquartile range of vegetables intake women were gro- uped as those consuming less than 1.5 serving of vegetables per day and those consuming more. The women reporting consuming more than 1.5 serving of vegetables had significantly higher T-score (-1.1±0.8 compared with -1.9±1.0, P<0.01 ). those consuming more vegetables had high intake of some nutrients such as vitamin c, vitamin a, potassium, magnesium, zinc, folate, iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus but none of them except for vitamin a (r="0.03," p<0.05) was correlated with bmd. conclusion: high consumption of vegetables positively affects bone mineral density in women and daily intake of at least 1.5 servings of vegetables is recommended to prevent osteoporosis.< pan>

Keywords: Osteoporosis, BMD, Fruits, Vegetables, Rural population, Diet pattern

To cite this article:


  1. World Health Organization. Reducing risk, promoting healthy life. World Health Report, 2002. Geneva: WHO.
  2. Cooper C., Campion G., Melton L. Hip frac-tures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Ost-eoporos Int.1992;2:285-289.
  3. Bunker V. The role of nutrition in osteoporos. British J Biomedicine Science.1994;51:228-40.
  4. World Health Report. Consumption Patterns Contribute to Mortality. Geneva.2002.
  5. Tuker K.L., Hannan M.T., Chen H., Cupples L. A., Wilson PW.F., Kiel D.P. Potassium, magnes-ium, and fruit and vegetables intake are associa-ted with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr.1999;69:727-36.
  6. New S.A., Robins S.P., Campell M.K., Martin J.C., Gerton M.J., Bolton-Smith C.., Grubb D.A., Lee S.J., Reid D.M. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consum-ption and bone health. Am J Clin Nutr.2000;71: 142-51.
  7. Tuker K.L., Chen H., Hannan M.T., Cupples L. A., Wilson P.W.F., Felson D. Bone mineral dens-ity and dietary patterns in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr.2002;76:245-52.
  8. Wattanapenpaiboon N., Lukito W., Wahlqvist M.L., Strauss B.J. Dietary carotenoid intake as predictore of bone mineral density. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr.2003; 12:467-73.
  9. Tylavsky F.A., Holliday K., Danish R., Womack C., Norwood J., Carbone L. Fruit and vegetable intakes are an independent predictor of bone size in early pubertal children. Am J Clin Nutr.2004;79:311-7.
  10. Tucker K., Hannan M.T., Kiel D.P. The acid-base hypothesis: Diet and bone in Framingham osteoporosis study. Eur J Nutr.2001;40:231-7.
  11. Appel L.J., Moore T.J., Obarzanek E., Vollmer W.M., Svetkey L.P., Sacks F.M. A clini-cal trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. N Eng J Med.1997;336:1117-24.
  12. Buclin T., Cosma M., Appenzeller M., Jacq-uet A.F., Decosterd L.A., Biollaz J., Burckhardt P. Diet acids and alkalis influence calcium retention in bone. Osteoporos Int.2001;12:493-9.
  13. Remer T., Manz F. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. Am J Dietetic Assoc.1995;95:791-7.
  14. Maurer M., Riesen W., Muser J., Hulter H.N., Krapf R. Neutralization of western diet inhibits bone resorption independently of K intake and reduces cortisol secretion in humans. Am J Phy-siol.2003;284:F32-F40.
  15. Mühlbauer R.C. Effect of vegetableg on bone metabolism. Nature.1999;40:343-344.
  16. Mühlbauer R.C., Lozano A., Reinli A. Onion and a mixture of vegetables, salads, and herbs affect bone resorption in rat by a mechanism independent of their base excess. J Bone Miner Res.2002;17:1230-6.
  17. Mühlbauer R.C., Lozano A., Reinli A., Wetli H. Various selected vegetables, fruits, mushrooms and red wine residue inhibit bone resorption in rats. J Nutt.2003;133:3592-7.
  18. Hammond K.A. Dietary and clinical assess-ment. In: Mahan LK & Escott-Stump S. Food, nutrition and diet therapy, 11th Edition. Philade-lphia. WB Saunders.2004;pp:407-435.
  19. غفار پور محمد، هوشيار راد آرش، کيانفر هادي. راهنماي مقياسهاي خانگي، ضرايب تبديل و درصد خوراکي مواد غذايي. تهران، انتشارات کشاورزي، 1378: صفحات 46-1.
  20. Pongchaiyakul C., Nguyen T.V., Kosulwat V., Rojroongwasinkul N., Charoenkiatkul S., Rajata-navin R. Effect of urbanization on bone mineral density: A Thai epidemiologic study. BMC Mus-culoskeletal Disorder.2005;5:67-9.
  21. Hashemipour S., Larijani B., Adibi H., Javadi E., Sedaghat M., Pajouhi M. Vitamin D deficien-cy and causative factors in the population of Tehran. BMC Public Health.2004;25:38.
  22. Kaptoge S., Welch A., McTaggart A., Mull-igan A., Dalzell N. Effects of dietary nutrients and food groups on bone loss from the proximal femur in men and women in the 7th and 8th decades of age. Osteoporos Int.2003;14:418-28.
  23. U.S. Department of Agriculture: The food guide pyramid. Home and Garden Bulletin No 252, Washington, DC,1992,U.S.Government Prin- ting Office.
  24. McGartland C.P., Robson P.J., Murray L.J. Cran G.W., Savage M.J., Fruit and vegetable consumption and bone mineral density: the Nor-thern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Am J Clin Nutr.2004;80:1019-23.
  25. Hirota T., Kusu T., Hirota K. Improvement of nutrition stimulates bone mineral gain in Japanese school children and adolescents. Osteoporos Int. 2005 [Epub ahead of print].
  26. Feskanich D., Singh V., Willette W.C., Col-ditz G.A. Vitamin A intake and hip fractures among postmenopausal women.J Am Med Assoc. 2002;287:47-54.
  27. Melhus H., Michaelsson K., Kindmark A., Bergstrom R., Holmberg L., Mallmin H. Excess-ive dietary intake of vitamin A is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for hip fracture. An Int Med.1998;129;770-778.
  28. Remer T., Manz F. Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. Am J Diet Assoc. 1995;95:791-97.
  29. Macdonald H.M., New S.A., Fraser W.D., Campbell M.K., Reid D.M. Low dietary potass-ium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal wom-en and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr.1995;81: 923-933.
  30. Green J., Kleeman C. Role of bone in regu-lation of systemic acid-base balance. Kidney International.1991; 39:9-26.
  31. Arnett T. Regulation of bone cell function by acid-base balance. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2003;62;511-20.
  32. Mueller K., Trias R. Bone density and compo-sition: age related and pathological changes in water and mineral content. J Bone Joint Sur. 1966;48A:140-8.
  33. World Health Report nutrition in different cou-ntries, social aspects.2003.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.