Touran Alizadeh
- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tehran Tarbiyat Moalem University, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Naghi Farahani Corresponding Author
- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tehran Tarbiyat Moalem University, Tehran, Iran
Mehrnaz Shahraray
- Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Tehran Tarbiyat Moalem University, Tehran, Iran
Shahrzad Alizadegan
- Department of Epidemiology and Reproductive Health Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran

Received: 4/1/2005 Accepted: 4/1/2005 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: As infertility is known as a physiological effect, it is also a psycho-social effect. Recently, there are a lot of developing research showing that psychological factors can be a cause of infertility, and also infertility can have psychological outcomes. From psychological factors, it should be to address of infertility- related stress, Internal- External locus of control and self esteem .The Objective of the Study was to investigate the relationship between infertility- related stress (sexual, social, relationship, rejection of child- free life style and need for parenthood) with self- esteem and locus of control in non- related infertile men and women in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: sixty infertile men and women (Not related together), were selected randomly from Royan Infertility clinic in summer-winter, 2003, they were completed Newton`s Fert-ility Problem Inventory(1999), Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Questionnaire(1990), and Levenson`s Inter-nality, Powerful-Others and Chance Locus of Control Scales (1975). Statistical Analysis was done with by using SPSS software. Results: The results showed a significant negative relationship (p<0.05 ) between self- esteem and components of (sexual, social, relationship, rejection of child- free life style and need for parenth-ood) infertility- related stress. sexual issues had the highest correlation with self-esteem. significant relationship (p<0.05) was found between external locus of control (believing in powerful others) and sexual, relationship, social, and rejection of child- free life style. the relationship between external locus of control (chance) and the relationship and need for parenthood components were also signi-ficant (p<0.05). although the difference between infertility- related stress of men and women was significant, women in comparison with men had higher scores in all components. sexual issues in women and relationship issues in men had the highest correlation with their self- esteem of all the components. conclusion: according our result in infertility investigation, the psychological factors have relative importance, and in the future researches, it is necessary to go behind psychological factors such as social factors.< pan>

Keywords: Infertility, Stress, Self- esteem, Locus of control, Sex differences

To cite this article:


  1. Lin Y. Counseling a Taiwanese women with infertility problem. Counseling Psychology Quarterly.2002;I5(2): 209.
  2. Abbey A., Hallmant L., Antonia J. The role of perce-ived control, attributionas, and meaning in member’s of infertile couples well- being. J Soc Clin Psychol. 1998;14:271- 296.
  3. رجوعي، مريم. جنبه‌هاي روانشناختي ناباروري. پژوهش‌هاي روانشناختي، 1376. سال 4، شماره 4-3، ص 85-72.
  4. Erica M., Taylor. The stress of infertility. Hum Ecol. 2002;95(1):12.
  5. كرمي نوري رضا، آخوندي محمد مهدي. مطالعه و بـررسي جنبــه‌هاي روانـي- اجتماعـي ناباروري از ديدگاه پزشكان ايراني، ششمين سمپوزيوم تخصصي باروري و نـابـاروري "جنبـه‌هـاي روانشناختـي نـابـاروري"1380. ارديبهشت ماه.
  6. پهلواني، هاجر. بررسي اثرات ناشي از ناباروري و راهبردهاي مقابله اي سلامت رواني افراد نابارور. پايان نامه كارشناسي ارشد، تهران: انستيتو روانپزشكي ايران، دانشگاه علوم پزشكي ايران، 1375.
  7. فراهاني محمد نقي. جنبه‌هاي روان‌شناختي مقابله با ناباروري و نقش روان شناس. فصلنامه باروري و ناباروري، 1380. شماره هشتم، سال دوم، صفحة 52.
  8. Peterson B. Newton C. Examining congruence between partner’ perceived infertility related stress and its rela-tionship to marital adjustment and depression in infer-tile couples. Family process.2002;42(1):59.
  9. Rosenberg M. Scale of self-Esteem. Clin Ass Mean valid. Psycholo Rep.1987;1. 17-1.71.
  10. Farahani M.N., Cooper M., Jin P. Is Locus of control unidimentional or multidimentional? Data from Persian translation of Rotter’s I-E Scale and Levenson’s I, P, and C Scales. Psychol Res.1996;3(4):30-42.
  11. Malpani A. Malpani A. How have a baby: overcoming infertility.2002, Chapter 32, Unexplained infertility. pp:320- 345.
  12. Wright J. Psychosocial distress and infertility. Men and women respond differrentlly. Fertil Steril.1991;34(2): 126-42.
  13. Downey J., Mckinne M. The psychiatric states of wo-man, personality for infertility evaluation. Am J Orth-opsychiatry.1992;62,pp:196-205.
  14. Abbey F. Andrews M., Hallmant L. Infertility and sub-jective well being: The mediating roles of self esteem, internal control and interpersonal conflict. J Marriage Fam.1992;54:408- 417.
  15. گولومبوك، سوزان؛ في وش، رابين؛رشد جنسيت، ترجمه مهرناز شهرآراي، تهران: انتشارات ققنوس. 1378.
  16. خسروي،‌ زهره. بررسي عوامل پيش بيني كننده سلامت روان زوجهاي نابارور. ششمين سمپوزيوم تخصصي باروري و ناباروري “ جنبه هاي روانشناسي ناباروري“‌. 1380.
  17. Bernstein J., Fiddler A. Infertility: from a personal to a public health problem. Public Health Reports.1999; 144:(6).
  18. كاوياني حسين، موسوي اشرف السادات. بررسي روان شناختي كتاب ” سنگي بر گوري“، آل احمد، (1360). فصلنامه باروري و ناباروري، 1380. شماره هشتم، سال دوم، ص4.
  19. Seible M., Taymor M. Emotional aspects of infertility. Fertil Steril.1987;34:(2).
  20. Domar A. Stress and Inferrtility in women. Fertil Steril.2000;57:324- 340.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.