Hossein Hadi Nadooshan Corresponding Author
- Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, shahid sadoughi university of Medical Sciences , Yazd, Iran
Reza Jafarishekib
- Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine Gilan University of Medical Sciences , Gilan, Iran
Abbas Aflatoonian
- Department of Obstet . and Gynecol . of Shahid Sadughi Medical Science of Yazd, Yazd, Iran

Received: 1/1/2006 Accepted: 1/1/2006 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: Some studies on human beings have suggested that during normal pregnancies an increase in the number of Th2 cells and in women with recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) an increase in Th1 cells takes place. The Cross-link of CD26 and CD3 on T-cells with immobilized monoclonal antibodies results in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 (Th1 cytokine) production. CD30 has been described as being preferentially expressed, and sCD30 preferentially released by human T-cells that produce Th2-type cytokines. The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of soluble CD26 (sCD26) and CD30 (sCD30) as markers of Th1 and Th2, alter in patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), and whether there is any correlation between cytokine production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum levels of soluble CD26 and CD30. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on two different groups of people referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. The case group consisted of 21 women with at least 3 abortions. The participants were visited on the day of their last abortion. The control group consisted of 32 pregnant women without any abortions and with a history of at least one successfully terminated pregnancy. The serum levels of sCD26 and sCD30 and levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFNγ in the cell culture supernatant were evaluated by ELISA method and then they were compared. Results: The levels of sCD26 and sCD30 were similar in women with RSA and in the controls. The production of IL-2 by PBMCs in women with RSA was higher than that of the controls (p=0.001) but the level of IL-10 was higher in the controls than women with RSA (p=0.002). There was no correlation between the levels of sCD26, sCD30 and cytokines in the two groups. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the serum levels of sCD26 and sCD30 are no indicators for RSA but the elevation of IL-2 and decrease of IL-10 in women with RSA may be considered as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortions.

Keywords: RSA, sCD26, sCD30, Cytokine

To cite this article:


  1. Regan L. Overview of recurrent miscarriage. Gynaecol Forum.1998;3:3-7.
  2. Laird S.M., Tuckerman E.M., Cork B.A., Linjawi S., Blakemore A.I., Li T.C. A review of immune cells and molecules in women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod Update. 2003; 9(2):163-74.
  3. Mosmann T.R., Sad S. The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunol Today.1996 ;17(3):138-46.
  4. Raghupathy R. Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy. Immunol Today.1997;18 (10):478-82.
  5. Raghupathy R., Makhseed M., Azizieh F., Omu A., Gupta M., Farhat R. Cytokine production by maternal lymphocytes during normal human pregnancy and in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod.2000;15(3):713-18.
  6. Makhseed M., Raghupathy R., Azizieh F., Al-Azemi M.M., Hassan N.A., Bandar A. Mitogen-induced cyto-kine responses of maternal peripheral blood lympho-cytes indicate a differential Th-type bias in normal pregnancy and pregnancy failure. Am J Reprod Immu-nol. 1999;42(5):273-78.
  7. Marzi M., Vigano A., Trabattoni D., Villa M.L., Salva-ggio A., Clerici E., Clerici M. Characterization of type 1 and type 2 cytokine production profile in physiologic and pathologic human pregnancy. Clin Exp Immunol. 1996;106(1):127-33.
  8. Morimoto C., Schlossman S.F. The structure and function of CD26 in the T-cell immune response. Immunol Rev.1998;161:55-70.
  9. Fleischer B. CD26: a surface protease involved in T-cell activation. Immunol Today.1994;15(4): 180-84.
  10. Dong R.P., Morimoto C. Role of CD26 for CD4 memory T cell function and activation. Hum Cell.1996 ;9(3):153-62.
  11. Del Prete G., De Carli M., Almerigogna F., Daniel C. K., D Elios M.M., Zancuoghi G., et al. Preferential ex-pression of CD30 by human CD4+ T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. FASEB J. 1995;9(1):81-6.
  12. Romagnani S., Del Prete G., Maggi E., Chilosi M., Caligaris-Cappio F., Pizzolo G. CD30 and type 2 T helper (Th2) responses. J Leukoc Biol.1995;57(6):978.
  13. Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven A.L., Heineman M.J., Faas M.M. The immunology of successful pregnancy, Hum Reprod Update. 2003;9(4):347-57.
  14. Nakao K., Nagake Y., Okamoto A., Ichikawa H., Yamamura M., Makino H. Serum levels of soluble CD26 and CD30 in patients on hemodialysis. Nephron. 2002;91(2):215-21.
  15. Katoh N., Hirano S., Suehiro M., Ikenaga K., Yama-shita T., Sugawara N., et al. Soluble CD30 is more relevant to disease activity of atopic dermatitis than soluble CD26. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;121(2): 187-92.
  16. Holzer G., Pfandlsteiner T., Blahovec H., Trieb K., Kotz R. Serum concentrations of sCD30 and sCD40L in patients with malignant bone tumours. Wien Med Wochenschr.2003;153(1-2): 40-2.
  17. Makhseed M., Raghupathy R., Azizieh F., Farhat R., Hassan N., Bandar A. Circulating cytokines and CD30 in normal human pregnancy and recurrent spontaneous abortions. Hum Reprod.2000;15(9):2011-17.
  18. Sehmsdorf U.S., Zenclussen A.C., Arck P., Hertwig K., Joachim R.A., Klapp B., et al. Human miscarriage is associated with increased number of CD26 decidual lymphocytes. Scand J Immunol. 2004;59(4):400-7.
  19. Hoshimoto K., Ohta N., Ohkura T., Inaba N. Changes in plasma soluble CD26 and CD30 during pregnancy: markers of Th1/Th2 balance? Gynecol Obstet Invest.2000;50(4):260-63.
  20. Keane N.M., Price P., Lee S., Stone S.F., French M. A. An evaluation of serum soluble CD30 levels and serum CD26 (DPPIV) enzyme activity as markers of type 2 and type 1 cytokines in HIV patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001;126(1):111-16.
  21. Yui J., Garcia-Lloret M., Wegmann T.G., Guilbert L. Cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor--? (TNF-?) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) against primary human pla-cental trophoblasts. Placenta.1994;15:819-28.
  22. Chaouat G., Menu E., Clark D.A., Dy M., Min- kowski M., Wegmann T.G. Control of fetal survival in BA_DBA/2mice by lymphokine therapy. J Reprod Fertil.1990;89:447-57.
  23. Palfi M., Jablonowska B., Matthiesen L., Ernerudh J.Circulating interferon-gamma and interleukin 4-secre-ting cells in recurrent spontaneous abortion. Am J Reprod Immunol.1999;41(4):257-63.
  24. Bates M.D., Quenby S., Takakuwa K., Johnson P. M., Vince G.S. Aberrant cytokine production by peri-pheral blood mononuclear cells in recurrent pregnancy loss. Hum Reprod.2002; 17(9):2439-44.
  25. Yssel H., De Waal Malefyt R., Roncarolo M.G., Abrams J.S., Lahesmaa R., Spits H., et al. IL-10 is pro-duced by subsets of human CD4+ T cell clones and peripheral blood T cells. J Immunol.1992;149(7):2378-84.
  26. Borish L. IL-10: evolving concepts. J Allergy Clin Immunol.1998;101(3):293-97.
  27. Horwitz D.A., Zheng S.G., Gray J.D. The role of the combination of IL-2 and TGF-beta or IL-10 in the generation and function of CD4+ CD25+ and CD8+ regulatory T cell subsets. J Leukoc Biol.2003;74(4): 471-78.
  28. Wilson R., Moor J., Jenkins C., Miller H., Walker J. J., McLean M.A., et al. Abnormal first trimester serum interleukin 18 levels are associated with a poor out-come in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol.2004;51(2):156-59.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.