- Roqaieh Bayrami
- - Ghamar Banihashem Hospital, Khoy, Iran
- Niloofar Sattarzadeh
- - Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
- Fatemeh Ranjbar Koochaksariie
- - Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
- Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki
- - Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Received: 6/29/2008 Accepted: 8/19/2008 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute
Introduction: Pregnancy is one of the most critical periods in women’s lives. Sexual and marital relationships could change due to physical and psychological alterations during this period. Disregarding sexual relationships during pregnancy may result in sexual dysfunction in couples. This study was performed to determine sexual dysfunction and some of its related factors in pregnant women and their spouses.Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, sexual dysfunction and some of its related factors, prevalent during pregnancy, were studied in 350 couples, through stratified sampling. A three-part questionnaire was used for data gathering: 1) Demographic, 2) Couples’ attitudes towards sexual activities during pregnancy, and 3) Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX)_ both female and male versions. The results were statistically sccrutimized.Results: Sexual dysfunction was found in 12.5%, 11.3% and 21% of the couples in the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy respectively. Altered sex drive in women and sexual dissatisfaction and inability to reach orgasm in men were the most prevalent sexual dysfunctions at each pregnancy trimester. A significant relationship was found between male sexual dysfunction and fear of injury to the fetus (P=0.009) and feeling of guilt (P<0.001 ) in the third trimester. similarly, female sexual dysfunction was significantly associated with fear of injury to the fetus (or="1.5)," feeling of decreased sexual attractiveness (or="1.43)," discontent with family’s financial situation (or="2.67)," unwanted pregnancy (or="4.05)" and low level of education (or="2.49).Conclusion:" as couples’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes regarding sexual activity during pregnancy influence their sexual function, holding educational programs and providing consultation to address the issue during prenatal care are recommended.< pan>0.001>
Keywords: Attitude, Couples, Pregnancy, Psychological behavior, Satisfaction, Sexual behavior, Sexual dysfunction, Sexual response cycle, Sexuality To cite this article:
- Mehrabi F, Dadfar M. [The role of psychological factors in sexual functional disorders]. Iran J Psychiat Clin psychol. 2003;9(1(33)):4-11. Persian.
- Jahanfar SH, Molaeenezhad. [Text book of sexual dis-orders]. Salemi & bizhe publication, Tehran. 2002;p. 11-61. Persian.
- Gelder M, Magou R, Geddes J. [Oxford core texts psy-chiatry]. Translated by Pourafkary N. 2nd Edition. Gol-ban medcal publication. 2003;p.209. Persian.
- Lewis RW, Fugl-Meyer KS, Bosch R, Fugl-Meyer AR, Laumann EO, Lizza E, et al.Epidemiology/risk factors of sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med. 2004;1(1):35-9. [PubMed]
- Read J. Sexual problems associated with infertility, pregnancy and agening. BMJ. 2004;392:587-9. [PubMed]
- Murrage SS, Corrie T. Foundation of maternal newborn nursing. 3rd Edition. WB sunders company, Filadel-phia. 2002;p.164-6.
- Lee JT. The meaning of sexual satisfaction. J Mid-wifery Womens Health. 2002;47(4):278-86. [PubMed]
- Sydow KV. Sexuality during pregnancy and after child birth: A meta content analysis of 59 studies of psycho-somatic research. J Psychosomat Res. 1999;47(1):27-49.
- Smith MA, Shimp LA. 20 common problem in women’s health care. Mcgraw-Hill, New York.2000;136-48.
- Nichols FH, Humenick SS. Child birth education, 2nd Edition. WB sunders company, Philadelphia. 2000;p. 49-63.
- Lawoyin TO, Larsen U. Male sexual behaviour during wifes pregnancy and postpartum abstinence period in Oyo State. Nigeria. J Biosoc Sci. 2002;34(1):51-63. [PubMed]
- Andrews G. Womens sexual health. 2nd Edition. Bailliere tindal. Edinburgh. 2001;p.161-72.
- Sanfilippo JS, Smith RP. Primery care in obstetrics and gynecology. Springer press, New york. 1998;p. 510-2.
- Lowdermik Dl, Perry SE, Bobak IM. Maternity & Womens Health Care. 7th Edition. Mosby company, London. 2000;p.418-20.
- Sajatovic M, Ramirez LF. Rating scales in mental health. 2nd Edition. Lexicomp. 2003;p.372-3.
- McGahuey CA, Gelenberg AJ, Laukes CA, Moreno FA, Delgado PL, McKnight KM, et al. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX): reliability and vali-iy. J Sex Marital Ther. 2000;26(1):25-40. [PubMed]
- Pezeshki MZ, Bayrami R. [Reliability and construct validity of Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX) among pregnant women referred to Tabriz urban health centers, 2004]. 2nd National congress on family and sexual problems. Tehran, October 25-26. 2005;p.131.
- Erol B, Sanli O, Korkmaz D, Seyhan A, Akman T, Kadioglu A. A cross-sectional study of female sexual function and dysfunction during pregnancy. J Sex Med. 2007;4(5):1381-7. [PubMed]
- Rahimi S, Seyyed Rasooly E. [Sexual behavior during pregnancy: Adescriptive study of pregnant women in Tabriz, Iran]. Payesh J. 2004;3(4):291-9. Persian. [Abstract]
- Heydari M, Mohammadi Kh, Faghihzadeh S. [The Study of Sexuality Changes during Pregnancy]. Bi-onthly J Med Daneshvar. 2005;13(61):32-7. Persian.
- Nichols FH, Humenick SS. Child birth education. 2nd Edition. WB sunders company. Philadelphia. 2000;p. 49-63.
- Onah HE, Iloabachie GC,Obi SN, Ezugwu FO, Eze JN. Nigerian male sexual activity during pregnancy, Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2002;76:219-23. [PubMed]
- Heidari M, Kiani Asiabar A, Faghih Zadeh S. [Couples knowledge and attitude about sexuality in pregnancy]. Tehran University Med J (TUMJ). 2006; 64(9):83-9. Persian. [PubMed]
- Sattarzadeh N, Yavari kya P. [sexual activity changes during pregnancy]. congress on family and sexual problems. Tehran, Shahed University. October 15-16, 2003;p.73. Persian.
- Senkumwong N, Chaovisitsaree S, Rugpao S, Chand-rawongse W, Yanunto S. The changes of sexuality in Thai women during pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89(l 4):124-9. [PubMed]
- Pasha H, Haj Ahmadi M. [Evaluation of Sexual behaviors in pregnant women and some related factors, Babol, Iran]. 2004. Med J Hormozgan University. 2007;10(4):343-8. Persian.
- Hassan Zahraee R, Shafie K, Bashardoost N, Reihani M, Jaberi P. [Study of the related factors in couple sexual relationship during pregnancy]. J Qazvin Uni-versity Med Sci. Winter 2002;(20):62-7. Persian.
- Oruc S, Esen A, Lacin S, Adiguzel H, Uyar Y and Koyuncu Fsexual behavior during pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;39(1):48-50. [PubMed]
- Shojaa M. Joybari L, Sanagoo A. [Current believes about sexual intercourse during pregnancy among pregnant women]. Iran J Psychiat Clin Psychol. Letter to the editor. Summer 2008;14(2):220-1. Persian.
- Reamy KJ, Whites SE. Sexuality in the puerperium: a review. Arch Sex Behav. 1987;16:165-86. [PubMed]
- Ozgoli G, Khoushabi K, Valaie N, Dolatian M, Tar-verdi M. [Surveying the knowledge and attitude toward sexual relation and its relivant factors in pregnant women referring to primary health care centers in Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 2004]. Pejouhandeh J. 2006;2(6):137-47. Persian.
- Boyd M. Psychiatric Nursing Contemporary Practice. 2nd Edition. Lipincott company, phyladelphia. 2001;p. 173.
- Bayrami R, Haghighi moghaddam Y. [Sexuality during pregnancy]. Mehr e Amiralmomenin Publica-tion, Ghom. 2006;p.69-80. Persian.
- Al Bustan MA, el Tomi NF, Faiwalla MF, Manav V. Maternal sexuality during pregnancy and after child-birth in Muslim Kuwaiti women. Arch Sex Behav. 1995;24(2):207-15. [PubMed]
- Matteson P SH. Women’s health during child bearing years: A community- based approach. Mosby, St. louis. 2001;p.425-8.