Monir Pashmi Corresponding Author
- Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
Seyed Ahmad Ahmadi
- Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran
Seyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabaie
- Department of Law, Faculty of Administrative Science and Economics, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran

Received: 10/4/2008 Accepted: 12/27/2008 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: Practicing surrogacy without proper consultations with the two concerned parties, may poses surrogate mothers to psychological and behavioral problems during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum. This study aims to underline possible risks and problems faced by surrogate mothers and it tries to take care of them by persuading to hold decent preliminary consultations.Materials and Methods: This paper reviews the published literatures during 1987 - 2008, and it covers domestic resources as well as foreign ones and focuses mainly on legal and cultural issues surrounding surrogacy and surrogate motherhood. Results: The reviews showed that the physicians or the counselors should explain the ethical and legal issues and medical risks related to surrogacy, as well as disclose benefits from this act to both parties during counseling sessions. Possible referral of both parties for mental health consultation must be available before surrogacy process is started. The potential surrogate mothers should understand the importance of a written agreement consisting of terms, preconditions and possible future incidents.Conclusion: It seems that consultation and clarification of probable contingencies faced during the surrogacy process greatly help surrogate mothers experience the period with an altruistic feeling to help the intended couples. Organizing a consulting team composed of clinicians and health experts with various expertise is recommended to cover all dimensions of surrogacy including its medical, psychological, religious, legal, and social aspects.

Keywords: Conventional surrogacy, Gestational surrogacy, Infertile couple, Legal counseling, Medical counseling, Mental counseling, Surrogacy, Surrogate Mother

To cite this article:


  1. Brinsden PR, editor. Gestational surrogacy. Taylor & Francis; 2004. 703 p. (Gardner DK, Weissman A, Howles CM, Shoham Z, editors. Textbook of Assisted Reproductive Techniques; vol. 59).
  2. Sullivan L. Surrogacy: the case for a conventional approach. Med Law. 1991; 10(4): 401-15.   [PubMed]
  3. Golombok S, Murray C, Jadva V, Lycett E, MacCallum F, Rust J. Non-genetic and non-gestational parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers, fathers and child-ren at age 3. Hum Reprod. 2006; 21(7): 1918-24.   [PubMed]
  4. Raziel A, Schachter M, Strassburger D, Komarovsky D, Ron-El R, Friedler S. Eight years experience with an IVF surrogate gestational pregnancy programme. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005; 11(2): 254-8.   [PubMed]
  5. Carp HJ, Dirnfeld M, Dor J, Grudzinskas JG. ART in recurrent miscarriage: preimplantation genetic diagno-sis/screening or surrogacy? Hum Reprod. 2004; 19(7): 1502-5.   [PubMed]
  6. Brinsden PR. Gestational surrogacy. Hum Reprod Update. 2003; 9(5): 483-91.   [PubMed]
  7. British Medical Association. Changing Conceptions of Motherhood: The Practice of Surrogacy in Britain. London: British Medical Association; 1996. 75 p.
  8. Committee on Ethics. ACOG committee opinion num-ber 397, February 2008: surrogate motherhood. Obstet Gynecol. 2008; 111(2 Pt 1): 465-70.   [PubMed]
  9. van den Akker OB. Psychosocial aspects of surrogate motherhood. Hum Reprod Update. 2007; 13(1): 53-62.   [PubMed]
  10. Garmaroudy Sh. [Gestational Surrogacy in Iran]. J Reprod Infertil. 2008; 9(1): 50-64.persian.   [Abstract]
  11. Blyth E. Not a primrose path: commissioning parents experiences of surrogacy arrangements in Britain. J Reprod Infant Psycho. 1995; 13(3/4): 185-96.   [PubMed]
  12. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. Guidelines for the appropriate use of do-not-resuscitate orders. JAMA. 1991; 265(14): 1868-71.   [PubMed]
  13. MacPhee D, Forest K. Surrogacy: programme com-parisons and policy implications. Int J Law Fam. 1990; 4(3): 308-17.   [PubMed]
  14. Jadva V, Murray C, Lycett E, MacCallum F, Golombok S. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18(10): 2196-204.   [PubMed]
  15. Rezania Moallem MR. [Forensic pregbubcies in ac-cord with law and Islamic jurisprudence]. 1st ed. Qom: Islamic Development Organization. 2005: 321p. Persian.
  16. Brazier M, Golombok S, Campbell A. Surrogacy: re-view for the UK Health Ministers of current arrange-ments for payments and regulation. Hum Reprod Update. 1997; 3(6): 623-8.   [PubMed]
  17. MacCallum F, Lycett E, Murray C, Jadva V, Golombok S. Surrogacy: the experience of commis-sioning couples. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18(6): 1334-42.   [PubMed]
  18. Ragone H. Surrogate Motherhood: Conception in the heart. 1st ed. Oxford: Westview press; 1994. 215 p.
  19. Seif S, Kadivar P, Koromi Nouri R, Lotfabadi H. [Developmental psychology]. 11th ed. Tehran: Samt; 2002. 206 p. Persian.
  20. Moody-Adams MM. On surrogacy: morality, markets, and motherhood. Public Aff Q. 1991; 5(2): 175-90.   [PubMed]
  21. Blyth E. I wanted to be interesting. I wanted to be able to say i ve done something interesting with my life: Interviews with surrogate mothers in britain. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 1994; 12(3): 189-98.   [Abstract]
  22. Reilly DR. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers. CMAJ. 2007; 176(4): 483-5. Review.   [PubMed]
  23. Harrison M. Financial incentives for surrogacy. Womens Health Issues. 1991; 1(3): 145-7.   [PubMed]
  24. Van den Akker OB. Genetic and gestational surrogate mothers, experience of surrogacy. J Repord Infant Psychol. 2003; 21(2): 145-61.   [Abstract]
  25. Hanafin H. Surrogate parenting: reassessing human bonding. American sychological Association Conven-tion. NewYork; 1987.
  26. Baslington H. Anxiety overflow : Implications of the IVF surrogacy case and the ethical and moral limits of reproductive technologies in Britain. Womens Stud Int Forum. 1996; 19(6): 675-84.
  27. van den Akker OB. Psychosocial, moral and ethical issues involved in donor, surrogacy and adoption triads: A graded evaluation. London: Human fertil-ization and Embryology Association; 2002.
  28. van den Akker OB. Psychological trait and state char-acteristics, social support and attitudes to the surrogate pregnancy and baby. Hum Reprod. 2007; 22(8): 2287-95.   [PubMed]
  29. Shenfield F, Pennings G, Cohen J, Devroey P, de Wert G, Tarlatzis B. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 10: surrogacy. Hum Reprod. 2005; 20(10): 2705-7.   [PubMed]


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.