Hamid Reza Khodaei Corresponding Author
- Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran
Mohammad Chamani
- Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran
Aliasghar Sadeghi
- Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Research and Science Branch, Tehran, Iran
Hossein Hejazi
- Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Received: 4/26/2009 Accepted: 6/27/2009 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Introduction: Ovulation is a physiologic process with an inflammatory response that depends on a coordinated activity of gonadotropins and steroid hormones, as well as inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), etc. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in dairy products, beef and lamb. There is strong evidence that dietary CLA affects mediators involved in ovulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different doses of dietary CLA on systemic and local hormones and factors involved in ovulation.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 80 (50±2-day old) female mice were randomly divided into four groups (C as the controls and T1, T2 and T3 as the treatment groups). There were four replicates in each group and there were five mice in every replicate (20 mice, in total). The mice in the control group were fed with no CLA in their diet but the ones in the treatment group received 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5g/kg of CLA (replacing corn oil in the diet), respectively for 120 days. Later on, blood samples were obtained from the tails of animals that displayed estrus signs and estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), LH, FSH, NO, leptin and TNFα were measured. Furthermore, the effects of CLA on the ovarian production of prostaglandins (PGs) and NO were investigated. The data were analyzed by SAS software. Results: CLA significantly decreased serum levels of FSH (p<0.05 ), lh, estradiol, no, leptin and tnfα (p<0.01). in addition, cla decreased progesterone levels but this effect was statistically insignificant. the significantly negative effects of cla were seen on the ovarian production of pge2 and pgf2α (p<0.01).< pan>

Keywords: Conjugated linoleic acid, Nitric oxide, Ovary, Ovulation, Prostaglandin, Gonadotropin

To cite this article:

Figures, Charts, Tables


  1. Squires EJ. Applied animal endocrinology.1st ed. Cambridge: CABI; 2003. 233 p.
  2. Espey LL. Ovulation as an inflammatory reaction--a hypothesis. Biol Reprod. 1980;22(1):73-106. Review.   [PubMed]
  3. Espey LL. Current status of the hypothesis that mam-malian ovulation is comparable to an inflammatory reaction. Biol Reprod. 1994;50(2):233-8.   [PubMed]
  4. Tokuyama O, Nakamura Y, Muso A, Honda K, Ishiko O, Ogita S. Expression and distribution of cyclo-oxygenase-2 in human periovulatory ovary. Int J Mol Med. 2001;8(6):603-6.
  5. Staud R. Comparing COX-2 inhibitors with traditional NSAIDs. Emerg Med. 2000;23:1-6.
  6. Wu YL, Wiltbank MC. Transcriptional regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 gene in ovine large luteal cells. Biol Reprod. 2001;65(5):1565-72.   [PubMed]
  7. Espey LL. Comparison of the effect of nonsteroidal and steroidal antiinflammatory agents on prostaglandin production during ovulation in the rabbit. Prostaglan-dins. 1983;26(1):71-8.   [PubMed]
  8. Nagao K, Yanagita T. Bioactive lipids in metabolic syndrome. Prog Lipid Res.2008;47(2):127-46. Review.   [PubMed]
  9. Ferguson EM, Leese HJ. Triglyceride content of bovine oocytes and early embryos. J Reprod Fertil. 1999;116(2):373-8.   [PubMed]
  10. Aydin R. Conjugated linoleic acid: chemical structure, sources andbiological properties. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 2005;29:189-95.
  11. Pariza MW, Park Y, Cook ME. The biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid. Prog Lipid Res. 2001;40(4):283-98. Review.   [PubMed]
  12. Fritsche S, Fritsche J. Occurrence of CLA isomers in beef. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1998;75:1449–51.
  13. Collomb M, Schmid A, Sieber R, Wechsler D, Ryhanen E. Conjugated linoleic acids in milk fat:Variation and physiological effects. Inter Dairy J. 2006;16(11):1347-61.   [Abstract]
  14. Schmid A, Collomb M, Sieber R, Bee G. Conjugated linoleic acid in meat and meat products: A review. Meat Sci. 2006;73(1):29-41.
  15. Nagao K, Yanagita T. Conjugated fatty acids in food and their health benefits. J Biosci Bioeng. 2005;100(2): 152-7.   [PubMed]
  16. Bhattacharya A, Banu J, Rahman M, Causey J, Fernandes G. Biological effects of conjugated linoleic acids in health and disease. J Nutr Biochem. 2006;17 (12):789-810. Review.   [PubMed]
  17. Rahman MM, Bhattacharya A, Banu J, Fernandes G. Conjugated linoleic acid protects against age-associated bone loss in C57BL/6 female mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2007;18(7):467-74.   [PubMed]
  18. Harris MA, Hansen RA, Vidsudhiphan P, Koslo JL, Thomas JB, Watkins BA, et al. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and docosahexaenoic acid on rat liver and reproductive tissue fatty acids, prostaglandins and matrix metalloproteinase production. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2001;65(1):23-9.   [PubMed]
  19. Akahoshi A, Koba K, Ohkura-Kaku S, Kaneda N, Goto C, Sano H, et al. Metabolic effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in rats. Nutr Res. 2003;23(12):1691-701.
  20. Yamasaki M, Ikeda A, Oji M, Tanaka Y, Hirao A, Kasai M, et al. Modulation of body fat and serum leptin levels by dietary conjugated linoleic acid in Sprague-Dawley rats fed various fat-level diets. Nutrition. 2003;19(1):30-5.   [PubMed]
  21. Khodaei HR, Ghoreishi SM, Hejazi SH. [The relation-ship between size of normal and cystic bovine ovarian follicles with follicular fluid levels of nitric oxide and estradiol]. J Reprod Infertil. 2007;8(1):17-22. Persian.
  22. SAS Institute. SAS/STAT Software: Changes and Enhancements for Release 6.12. New York: SAS Institute Inc; 1997. 158 p.
  23. Chatterjee S, Collins TJ, Yallampalli C. Inhibition of nitric oxide facilitates LH release from rat pituitaries. Life Sci. 1997;61(1):45-50.   [PubMed]
  24. Tamanini C, Basini G, Grasselli F, Tirelli M. Nitric oxide and the ovary. J Anim Sci. 2003;81(E. Suppl. 2):E1–E7.
  25. Flint AP, Sheldrick EL, Fisher PA. Ligand-independ-ent activation of steroid receptors. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2002;23(1-2):13-24.   [PubMed]
  26. Derecka K, Sheldrick EL, Wathes DC, Abayasekara DR, Flint AP. A PPAR-independent pathway to PUFA-induced COX-2 expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;287(1-2):65-71.   [PubMed]
  27. Estévez A, Motta AB, Fernandez de Gimeno M. [Role of nitric oxide in the synthesis of prostaglandin F2 alpha and progesterone during luteolysis in the rat]. Medicina (B Aires). 1999;59(5 Pt 1):463-5. Spanish.   [PubMed]
  28. Luongo D, Bergamo P, Rossi M. Effects of conjug-ated linoleic acid on growth and cytokine expression in Jurkat T cells. Immunol Lett. 2003;90(2-3):195-201.   [PubMed]
  29. Castro N, Acosta F, Capote J, Argüello A. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on serum levels of N2O5 and l-citrulline in goat kids. Small Rumin Res. 2007;68(3):233-42.   [Abstract]
  30. Castaneda-Gutiérrez E, Benefield BC, de Veth MJ, Santos NR, Gilbert RO, Butler WR, et al. Evaluation of the mechanism of action of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on reproduction in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90(9):4253-64.   [PubMed]
  31. Pereira RM, Marques CC, Baptista MC, Vasques MI, Horta AEM. Influence of supplementation of arachido-nic acid and cyclooxygenase/lipoxygenase inhibition on the development of early bovine embryos. Rev Bras Zool. 2006;35:1-6.
  32. Parent J, Villeneuve C, Fortier MA. Evaluation of the contribution of cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 to the production of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha in epi-thelial cells from bovine endometrium. Reproduction. 2003;126(4):539-47.   [PubMed]
  33. Fuentes MC, Calsamiglia S, Sanchez C, Gonzalez A, Newbold JR, Santos JEP, et al. Effect of extruded linseed on productive and reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows. Livest Sci. 2008;113(2-3):144-54.   [Abstract]
  34. Castaneda-Gutiérrez E, Pelton SH, Gilbert RO, Butler WR. Effect of peripartum dietary energy supplementa-tion of dairy cows on metabolites, liver function and reproductive variables. Anim Reprod Sci. 2009;112(3-4):301-15.   [PubMed]


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.