Vol. 3, Issue 1, / January-March 2002
(Original Article, pages 13-21)

Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani Corresponding Author
1- Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center, Isfahan, Iran
2- Royan Institute, Isfahan, Iran
Abbas Rezai
- Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan Medical Sciences University, Isfahan, Iran
Mohammad Mardani
- Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan Medical Sciences University, Isfahan, Iran
Elham Yousefian
- Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Falavarjan Azad University, Isfahan, Iran
Felora Khosravi
- Anatomy Department, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiyat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Received: 9/5/2001 Accepted: 1/13/2002 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



Prevention of implantation is considered as one of the suitable methods for contraception or interception. Therefore during this study the effect of human follicular fluid (FF) on mouse implantation was evaluated. The results obtained during this study show that FF contains enzymes and upon incubation with mouse uterine tissue, results in delimitation of epithelium. This effect was inhibited by heat inactivation or addition of EDTA to FF. In vivo uterine wash with follicular fluid on days 3,4,5 and 6-post mating prevents implantation and therefore significantly reduces implantation and pregnancy rate. However uterine wash on day 7 post mating with FF had no effect on implantation and pregnancy rate. On day 3,4,5,6 and 7 with Ham’s 10 as control had no effect on implantation or pregnancy rate. Addition of EDTA also prevented the in vivo effect of FF, suggesting that the active agent present in FF is likely to be a metalloprotoinase which inactivates with heat and addition of EDTA. Taking into consideration the fact that FF does not affect the pregnancy of the next cycles, thus the FF or its active agent can be considered as good interceptive agent for prevention of pregnancy rate.

Keywords: Implantation, Metalloproteinase, Follicular fluid

To cite this article:


  1. Goldzieher J.W., Nezam M. Oral contraceptive side effects: where is the beef? Contraception.1995; 52: 327-5.
  2. Barken M. B. Oral contraception and congenital malformation in offspring: a review and meta analysis of prospective studies. Obs Gyn. 1990; 76: 552-7.
  3. Hormonal and non-hormonal agents at implantation as targets for contraception. Reprod Fertil Dev.1997; 9: 65-76.
  4. Simon C., Pellicer A., Remohi J. Emerging concepts on human implantation. Hum Reprod. 1999; 14: (2).
  5. Tabibzadeh S., Babaknia A. The signal and molecular pathways involved in implantation, a symbiotic interaction between blastocystis and endometrium involving adhesion and tissue invasion. Hum Reprod.1995; 10(6): 1579-602.
  6. Psychoyos A. Hormonal control of uterine receptivity for nidation. J Reprod Fertil. 1976; 25: 17-28.
  7. Nikas G. Pinopodes as marker of endometrial receptivity. Hum Rerod. 1999; 14 (12).
  8. Senturk L.M., Arici A. Leukemia inhibitory factor in human reproduction. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1998; 39(2): 144-51.
  9. Carson D.D., Tang Y., Gray S. Collagenase support. Embryo attachment and outgrowth in vitro. Dev Biol. 1988; 127:386.
  10. Huang H. Y., Wen Y., Irwin J.C., et al. Cytocine mediated regulation of tissue inhibitors of metalloprotinase –1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-3 and 92 kDa type IV collagenase mRNA expression in.human endometrial stromal cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988; 83: 1721-90.
  11. Somon C., Valbuena D., Krussel J. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist prevents embryonic implantation by a direct effect on the endometrial epithelium. Fertil Steril. 1998; 70: 896-906.
  12. Reich R., Miskin R., Tsafrir A. Follicular plasminogen activator in ovulation. Endocrionl. 1985; 116:516-21.
  13. Zhu C., Woessner J.F. Tissue inhibitor of metalloprotinase and alpha macroglobulins in the ovulating rat ovary: possible regulator of collagen matrix breakdown. Biol Repord. 1991; 45: 334-42.
  14. Reich R. Tsafrir A., Mechanic G.L. The involvement of collagenas in ovulation in rat. Endocrinol. 1985; 116: 522-7.
  15. Ward R.V., Atkinson S.J., Slocombe P.M., et al. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases –2 inhibits the activation of 72Kda progelatinase by fibroblast membrane. Bioch et Biophy Acta. 1991; 1089:242-6.
  16. Edward R.G. Review of implantation, interception and contraception. Hum Repord. 1994; 6:955-95.
  17. Psychoyos A., Nikas G. Uterine pionpodes as marker of uterine receptivity. Assis Repord Rev. 1994; 4:23-6.
  18. Hemmings R., Lachapelle M.H., Falcone T., et al. Effect of follicular fluid supplementation on the in vitro development of human pre-embryos. Fertil Steril. 1994; 62(5): 1018-21.
  19. Chi H.J., Kim D.H., Koo J.J., et al. The suitability and efficiency of human follicular fluid as a protein supplement in human in vitro fertilization programs. Fertil Steril. 1998; 70(5): 871-7
  20. Hung T.T., Millard. M.M. Inhibition of mouse embryo cleavage by factor present in the human preovulatory follicular fluid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.1985; 61:899-904.
  21. Rechtman M.P., Zhang J., Salamonsen L.A. Effect of inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases on endometrial decidualization and implantation in mated rats. J Repord Fertil. 1999; 117(1): 169-77.
  22. Klentzeris L.D. The role of endometrium in implantation. Hum Repord. 1997; 2: 170-5.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.