Serajoddin Vahidi Corresponding Author
- Urology Department, Shahid Sadoughi Medical Sciences University, Yazd, Iran
Mohammad Ali Khalili
- Embryology Department, Shahid Sadoughi Medical Sciences University, Yazd, Iran
Mojtaba Galebi
- Shahid Sadoughi of Yazd Medical Sciences University , Yazd, Iran

Received: 7/1/2000 Accepted: 7/1/2000 - Publisher : Avicenna Research Institute

Related Articles


Other Format



There are a limited number of infertile males with obstructive azoospermia, At present, spermatozoa can be aspirated with a simple technique called, percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). It is also possible to repeat PESA to aspirate spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.The objective of this study was to evaluate whether of not repeated PESA would cause any obstruction, scars, or defects on sperm parameters.Eighty–nine azoospermic cases were admitted to the university infertility center.A total of 235 PESA who underwent 199 ICSI cycles were selected for this retrospective study.Sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology, as well as the fertilization rates were statistically evaluated for each time.Sperm concentration (×106/ml) in first to forth PESA was 37.68, 45.58,35.62, and 19.13, respectively.Sperm motility in the above groups was 24.95%,23.10%,23.24%,and 25.71%,respectively. Also,fertilization rate (FR) was 66.36, 68.35,71.89, and 74.70 percent, respectively, for the same groups.There was not any significant difference in sperm parameters and FR in patients undergoing 1 to 4 PESA In addition, neither obstruction nor scars were reported in PESA.cases. We Conclude that repeated PESA is safe and reliable, and does not cause any significant defects in sperm parameters. Also, this technique can be repeated in individuals with obstructive azoospermia to aspirate sperm for a treatments regimen.

Keywords: Azoospermia, Repeated PESA, ICSI, Sperm Parameters, Male factor

To cite this article:


  1. Palermo G, Joris H, Devroeg N. Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoa into an oocyte. Lancet. 1992, 340: 17-18.
  2. Mansour R, Aboulghar M, Serous G.Intracytoplasmic sperm injection using microsurgically retrieved epididymal and testicular sperm. Fertil Steril. 1996, 65:566-72.
  3. Tournaye H, Devroey P, Liu J, et al.Microsurgcal epididymal sperm aspiration and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: new effective technique in absense of the vas deferens. Fertil Steril. 1994, 61:1045-51.
  4. Pryor J, Pasons J, Goswamy R, et al. In vitro fertilization, for men with obstructive azoospermia. Lancet 1984, 2:762.
  5. Urman B, Aksoy S, Alatas C. Early sperm retrieval and in vitro culture: preventing injection of hCG to partners of azoospermic men. Assist Reprod Rev. 1998, 8:76-8.
  6. Lee YE, Seo TJ. A comparison of results between ejaculated, epididymal, artificial spermatocel aspirated and testicular sperm+ ICSI. Annual meeting of ASRM. 1996, 49.
  7. Tasdemir I. Outcome of ICSI with totally morphologicall abnormal spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 1996, 11:208-211.
  8. Pruksnanonda K. Successful pregnancy in case of azoospermia using PESA and ICSI. Med Assoc 1998, 81:379-84.
  9. Gorgi A, Meniru GI, Naumann N, et al. The efficacy of local anesthesia for percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm aspiration. Hum Reprod. 1998,13: 975-04.
  10. Gorgi A, Meniru GI, Bates S, et al. Percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm aspiration for ICSI. Assit Repod Rev. 1998, 8:79-93.
  11. Silber S.J., Balmaceda J, Borrero M, Pregnancy with sperm asperation from the proximal head of the epididymis: a new treatment for congential absense of the vasdeferens.Fertil Steril. 1988, 50:525-8.


Home | About Us | Current Issue | Past Issues | Submit a Manuscript | Instructions for Authors | Subscribe | Search | Contact Us

"Journal of Reproduction & Infertility" is owned, published, and managed by Avicenna Research Institute .
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution –NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

Journal of Reproductoin and Infertility (JRI) is a member of COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATION ETHICS . Verify here .

©2024 - eISSN : 2251-676X, ISSN : 2228-5482, For any comments and questions please contact us.